The Canadian health care system


Canada’s publicly funded health care system is very active – it has been reformed over the past four decades and will continue to respond to changes in medicine and society as a whole. However, the underlying knowledge remains the same – providing universal coverage of the necessary health care services as needed, rather than the capacity to pay.
Canadians to share resources and responsibility will reflect the basic values of fairness and justice, the value in the Canadian health care system, and is reflected in the system since its establishment on the modifications and major reforms. As the country’s population and environment change and health care itself develops, the system continues to improve.
The evolution of our health care system.
Generally speaking, the Canadian constitution provides for the power of federal and provincial and regional governments. Under the “constitution act” of 1867, the provinces were responsible for establishing, maintaining and administering hospitals, shelters, charities and charities, and the federal government had jurisdiction over ocean hospitals and quarantine. The federal government has also been given the power to tax and borrow money, and can spend it as long as it does not infringe provincial powers. The federal department of agriculture assumed federal health responsibility from 1867 to 1919 when the health department was created. For years, the responsibilities of both levels of government have changed.
Before world war ii, health care in Canada was largely private delivery and funding. In 1947, the Saskatchewan provincial government launched a provincial-wide hospital care plan. By 1950, British Columbia and alberta had similar plans. The federal government passed the hospital insurance and diagnostic services act in 1957, which provides for reimbursements to designated hospitals and diagnostic services or to split the cost of half the provinces and regions. The act provides for a comprehensive coverage of a particular set of services under uniform terms and conditions. Four years later, all provinces and regions agreed to provide publicly funded hospital and diagnostic services.
In 1965, Saskatchewan implemented a universal health care plan to provide doctors for all residents. The federal government passed the “health care law” in 1966, which stipulates that the reimbursement or spread of half of the province and district costs is provided by doctors outside the hospital. In six years, all provinces and regions have universal health care insurance plans.
From 1957 to 1977, the federal government’s financial contributions in support of health care were defined as the percentage of provincial and territorial expenditures insured by hospitals and doctors (half). In 1977, cost-sharing was replaced by a closed-end fund, in the form of federal-provincial financial arrangements and scheduled financing bills, in which case a combination of cash payments and taxes. A fund is a government level that is provided to another level of government for a specific purpose. With tax transfers, the federal government lowers tax rates, and provincial and regional governments raise taxes at the same time. This new funding arrangement means that provincial and regional governments can invest in health insurance flexibly according to their own needs and priorities. The health transfer also increased federal higher education transfer payments.
In 1984, the Canadian health act passed federal legislation. The legislation replaces the federal hospital and medicare bill and consolidates its principles by making portability, availability, universality, comprehensiveness and public administration standards. The law also adds to the rules prohibiting additional fees and royalties for services (see the federal government section of this manual for details).
In 1995 by federal legislation to support health care and higher education of federal cash transfer and tax support social services and social assistance of the federal transfer into the Canadian institutes of health and social transfer (CHST) in fiscal year 1996-1997.
Federal, provincial and regional government leaders (or the first minister) in 2000 reached an agreement about the health of the primary health care, drug management, health information and communication technology as well as a major reform in health equipment and infrastructure. At the same time, the federal government has increased its support for healthy cash transfers.
In 2003, the first ministers agreed on a “health-care renewal agreement”, which provides for structural changes in the health system to support access, quality and long-term sustainability. The agreement commits the government to make targeted reforms in areas such as the acceleration of primary health care updates; Support information technology (e.g. electronic health records, telemedicine); Coverage of certain home care services and medicines; Increased use of diagnostic and medical equipment; And better accountability from the government.
According to the “agreement”, the federal government to support health care cash transfer increases, CHST since April 2004 divided into Canadian health transfer, transfer and Canadian society for higher education, social services and social assistance.
The first minister announced further reforms in his 2004 plan to strengthen the health care decade. Federal, provincial and regional governments are committed to implementing health care reform programs, including key areas of reform, such as waiting time management; Health human resources; The soil is healthy; Family care; Primary health care; National pharmaceutical strategy; Health care services in the north; Medical equipment; Prevention, promotion and public health; And to strengthen the report on the progress of these reforms. In order to support the plan, the federal government increased health care cash transfers, including from 2006-07 to 2013-14 years annual increase in the transfer of Canadian medical, federal funds to provide predictable growth.
All provinces and regions in the spring of 2007, public commitment by the year 2010 was established in a priority area of clinical patient wait times guarantee, and take the pilot project to test the guarantee and notify its implementation. Patient wait times guarantee is when shall provide necessary medical health service to wait longer than patients with limited time period to provide alternative care options (for example, referrals to other physician or medical and health institutions).
For more information about our health care history, see resources at the end of this manual: timetables, additional reference resources, and online resources.
Role of government

Canada’s health care system is organized primarily by the Canadian constitution, where the roles and responsibilities of the federal, provincial and regional governments are divided into two parts. Provincial and regional governments bear most of the responsibility for providing medical and other social services. The federal government is also responsible for providing certain services to certain groups.
Publicly-funded health care funds are derived from general revenue raised through federal, provincial and district taxes, such as personal and corporate taxes, sales taxes, payroll taxes, and other income. The provinces may also charge residents a health fee to help pay for public health care, but they are not allowed to limit access to the medical services necessary for medical care.
Health is more than just a health care system. Public health responsibilities, including health, infectious diseases and related education, are Shared by the government’s three orders: federal, provincial/regional and local or municipal. However, these services are usually carried out at provincial/regional and local levels.
The federal government
The role of the federal government in health care includes the national principles for the formulation and management of the system under the Canadian health law; To provide financial support to the provinces and regions; And other functions, including the provision of funds and/or provision of major and complementary services to certain populations. These groups include: indigenous people living in protected areas; The Inuit; Members of the Canadian armed forces; Eligible veterans; Prisoners in federal prisons; And some refugee applicants.
The Canadian health law requires that provinces and regions be required to receive full federal cash transfer payments to support healthy standards and conditions for meeting health insurance plans. All provinces and regions are required to provide reasonable medical services for hospitals and doctors. The bill does not encourage extra charges and user fees. The excess settlement is paid by the medical staff to the insured’s health services, and the amount is greater than the amount paid by the provincial or regional health insurance scheme or will be paid for the service. User fees are any cost of the insured health services that are not covered by the provincial or regional health insurance plan, and are not covered by the plan.
The federal government transfers cash and taxes through Canadian health transfers to the provinces and regions to support health. To support the cost of publicly funded services, including health care, the federal government has also provided equal payments to less prosperous provinces and provided territorial financing to the territory.
Services directly to indigenous and Inuit services include primary health care and emergency services in remote and isolated protected areas, with no provincial or regional services; Reserves and community health programmes in Inuit communities; As well as indigenous and Inuit uninsured health benefit programs (drugs, dentistry and ancillary health services), wherever they live in Canada. Generally, these services are provided by nurses, health centers, hospitalization centers, and community health promotion programs. A growing number of government and indigenous orders are working together to combine these services with the delivery of provincial and regional systems.
The federal government is also responsible for health protection and regulations (such as drug, food and medical equipment management), consumer safety and disease surveillance and prevention. It also supports health promotion and health research. In addition, the federal government has enacted health-related tax measures, including tax credits for medical expenses, people with disabilities, caregivers and vulnerable families. Provision of tax rebates for health services to public institutions; And deduct private medical insurance premiums for self-employed persons.


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