Close to the world without polio.

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During the peak of the 1940s and 1950s, polio paralysed more than 35,000 americans each year. But because of the vaccine and good hygiene and sanitation, polio has been largely forgotten in the developed world.
Now, even in less developed areas, it is close to disappearing altogether. But before polio can join the smallpox virus, there are still some challenges that need to be overcome, because the virus has been eradicated globally.
Supported by The world health organization, The bill and Melinda gates foundation, The Conversation of US strategic partners, to provide international dialogue), rotary international and other agencies, public health workers and volunteers worked tirelessly and at risk under The condition of vaccination every child in The world. The number of global polio cases dropped from 350,000 in 1988 to 37 in 2016. Thirty years ago, polio was often found in 125 of the world’s 190 or so countries. Today, only three countries continue to see recurring cases: Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan.
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Among them, Pakistan is the closest to polio because of its continuing, innovative vaccination campaign. But it has poor security, weak health systems and a lack of adequate sanitation.
In Pakistan, preparedness and response of infectious diseases like us researchers are learning this course, hope to eventually push against polio, also applied in other places, because public health experts are trying to eliminate other global infectious disease.
Poliomyelitis in person and environment.
Wild poliovirus is not particularly hardy and cannot survive long in the environment. If the virus cannot find the unvaccinated person as its host, it will die. This fact means that vaccination efforts can completely eliminate the virus by denying access to human hosts.
The world polio eradication campaign has eliminated two of the three naturally occurring wild poliovirus. The wild poliovirus type 2 was last seen in 1999, and there has been no wild poliovirus type 3 since 2012.
Polio is transmitted mainly through water contaminated with fecal contamination. Where water sources are exposed to waste water – often in developing countries such as Pakistan – the virus spreads easily.

Complicating matters, almost three out of four people infected with poliovirus have never had any symptoms. As a result, most people with polio do not know they have the virus, or they are spreading it to other people.
In addition, those with symptoms usually seem to have the flu, with fever, headaches, physical pain and vomiting. Only about 1% of the cases are temporary or permanent.
This means that even without a confirmed case of polio, it could be in the community and spread the virus. For this reason, the public health workers to use two different kinds of measures to measure the success of vaccination: was diagnosed with the number of polio, and found that the amount of virus in the environment.
Cultural challenges
In Pakistan, the two measures depict different images of the eradication of disease. The bad news is that 16% of the water tested in 2017 contains polio, a slight increase from 2016.
The better news is that from 2014 to 2017, the number of new polio cases has dropped 97%, from 306 to eight. With the support of the international community, the government has already vaccinated the majority of Pakistanis, which undoubtedly confirms a marked decline in the diagnosis. However, because vaccination is not widespread, the virus still exists in some parts of Pakistan, posing a threat to people who are not vaccinated or who have not been vaccinated as planned.
There are several cultural barriers to the eradication of polio in Pakistan. Public health workers can access most of the population at health clinics and border crossings. Mobile vaccination units have access to people in other areas but cannot safely reach children in highly conflict-ridden areas.
In many parts of the region, militants have refused to let public health officials vaccinate children, saying the polio vaccine is part of a western plot to wipe out muslims. In 2012, the taliban, still under control in some mountainous areas, imposed a ban on vaccination, slowing efforts to eradicate polio. In addition, the staff of polio vaccination campaigns has been the subject of violence, in January in a mother daughter recently vaccinated group was killed, and ambush last week in a remote tribal areas, led to the deaths of two medical workers, two other people were injured.
Pakistani health workers have been given a home after being vaccinated against polio after being armed. AP photo/Shakil Adil.
To overcome some of the challenges, the eradication campaign coordinated vaccination efforts through military action. It cleared the way for hundreds of thousands of children to be vaccinated when a massive military strike in 2015 drove the taliban out of northern Pakistan.
High illiteracy rates, extreme poverty and religious beliefs may also lead parents to reject vaccines for their children in Pakistan and elsewhere. In these cases, BBB 0 and publicity are very important. Helping parents understand the dangers of disease may help overcome misinformation about vaccines and increase the positive correlation with vaccination, just as it does in the United States.

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