How popular was Science when the Empire State Building was released in 1931?


This picture clearly shows how the elevator of the Empire State Building will be controlled. In the photo on the left, press the button and the car will automatically stop at the specified floor.
April 1931 Science Popular
In a few weeks the gates of the Empire State Building in New York are open to the public, 58 electric robots will stand in attention, waiting just to push the button to start the daily population distribution almost equal to the population of the famous summer resort of Newport, r. I. And Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Controlled by a complex electronic brain, through a few miles of copper nerves, this automatic elevator fleet is expected to handle an unprecedented amount of traffic that is smooth, fast, and secure and inaccessible under ordinary human control.
No railroad needs more careful planning than this greatest vertical transport system. The 86-story office design accommodates 25,000 workers. If you can rely on statistics from other large office buildings, then there will be about 60,000 transitional days.
Not only is it necessary to transport the 85,000 troops to the required parts, but all floors must be served at almost equal speed and comfort. If the value of office space does not decrease with height, then 80 floors must be as accessible as the 10th or 20th floors.
In addition, traffic during peak hours is very congested. The data shows that in the minutes between 5pm and 5:30pm. For example, about 15,000 people will be taken to the first floor.
Engineers and architects worked together to solve this problem without considering details. It was finally decided that the elevators with 58 automatic start, stop, level and door opening and closing devices could handle most of the work most effectively. Nine additional elevators, with varying degrees of self-operation, were decided to use the first seven floors, towers, and freight services. The installation of the entire elevator, including related work, preparation of hatches, costs about US$4,000,000.
During the months of this contract, the work of construction gangs, electricians and engineers was not simple. With the continuous improvement of the steel structure of the building, elevator maintenance personnel must maintain a good elevator service; steel workers, masons, gypsum workers, and plumbers must constantly provide materials. A few minutes will cost hundreds of dollars. Every few days, these temporary lift machines must be lifted. In order to save money, several elevators that were salvaged from the old Waldorf-Astoria hotel were designed for temporary service.
For the installation of a permanent elevator, some innovation is needed. Because 11 cars are taller than ever before, larger cranes must be designed and built. In general, the plumb line is accurate enough to align the guide rails with the weights.
However, due to concerns that the airstream may deviate from some of the huge shafts of the Empire State Building, the alignment of the rails was modified by the mining engineer by observing the mining engineer’s determination of the straightness of the mine.
A larger construction team is needed instead of an earlier installation. Over time, more than 300 elevator workers work at the same time.
Over the years, Otis Elevator has been developing so-called “signal control” elevators. These machines were originally developed for low-speed, no-operation, fool-proof services in apartment buildings. When high-rise buildings make high-speed elevators necessary, the necessity of automatic control becomes clear immediately, and development develops in a new direction. About six years ago, New York City’s first signal-controlled elevator was installed in a standard oil building. Since then, many improvements have been made. The installations used at the Chrysler Building and the larger installations that will soon be operating at the Empire State Building represent the world’s most advanced vertical transport system.
We can learn about the magic of the escalator through an imaginary journey. For example, let us enter the Empire State Building with the aim of ascending to the 79th floor, under the 7th floor. We do not need to find the right bank in the elevator corridor. This is shown by an electrical signal: 66-80 floors.
The light above a car shows that the car is leaving next. We are involved. A jiffy jewel flashes in the waiter’s control panel. He gently threw a lever into it. The wellbore and the car’s door were closed quietly and quickly, and the car started its steady, rapid jump.
“Sixty-eighth”, “Seventy” and “Seventy-ninth” passengers announced their floors to the waiters. They just clicked the button on the control panel. He no longer needs to worry about it. Once the door is closed, the car will be invisible monitoring – cams, cables, governors, generators, motors, brakes, switches, varistors, relays, etc. They are faster, more sensitive and more active than him.

The car continues to accelerate upwards for about one minute (this time will be cut in half), and suddenly the numbers begin to flash on the panel above the door. 66 years, 67 years. Almost unknowingly, the speed of the car slowed down.
When 68 flashes, it stops, the door automatically slides open, and we find that the car has been smoothly with the landing. There was no mark below or over, no breath acceleration or deceleration, no drop. A group of clever geniuses, hidden in the car, in the well, in the engine room, have all eliminated this.
After the two passengers got out of the car, the waiter gave the lever a slight throw, started the closure of the door and the car continued to move forward. For each button pressed, the elevator automatically makes the same gentle, fast and accurate stop. Not only does it stop on the buttons on the operator panel, it also allows passengers to press buttons while waiting in the hall. In this case, stop working completely without the knowledge of service personnel.
In the waiting time, only the car that actually parks will flash in the hall to save time. Normally, the direction that the first car needs after landing must be automatically stopped; but when a car is full, the waiter will open a switch on his control panel and may transfer all calls to the next car. car.
When we were finally released on the seventy-ninth floor, we found ourselves interpreting everything we went through in our minds. Without human help, we walked about 940 feet from the ground, about 7 stories higher than hotels in McAlpin, Biltmore and Pennsylvania – the lights flicker, the car stopped at the required floor, and the doors were also opened. In the science lectures, how dumbfounded the dummies were, they blinked, saluted, and said “hello,” as did the actual daily elevator robots.
Controlling and operating equipment is by no means simple. In order to interconnect all the circuits needed for the elevator in this building, nearly 8 million feet of rubber wire is necessary – enough from Boston to Kansas City. There is also a 36-mile pipeline. The length of the sling, the compensating rope, and the Governor’s rope were more than 120 miles.
Acceleration, deceleration, leveling, and parking of cars are all accomplished through so-called “selectors.” The device is located in a sports machine room above each shafting system. It has a sliding part that is moved up and down through a set of contactors in a tiny way through a steel belt connected to the car.
If a group of contacts is activated by pressing the stop button, when the slider members of the selector contact the group, the circuit is automatically controlled to the proper level and the car is stopped. The door opened and closed by the electric motor is started simultaneously.
Not only need to provide electrical and mechanical equipment to handle the normal operation of the elevator, but also need equipment to protect their safety. People pay so much attention to safety issues that the chances of accidents in newly installed elevators are four to five times less likely than accidents in your car.
Someone asked: “What if the cable breaks?” The answer may be surprising. The safety of the car will not be disturbed. These cables are often inspected and there are 6 cable supports per vehicle, although there are cars in the two highest banks in Empi.


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